In an ideal market, consumers should be able to make informed, cost-conscious choices about the products or services they are purchasing. Consumers in the U.S. often do not have access to sufficient information to make optimal choices about their health care due to the overall lack of transparency in the U.S. health care system. Calls for greater transparency in the U.S. health care system often center on the business practices of health insurers, pharmacy benefit managers, pharmaceutical manufacturers, hospitals and other providers, and pharmacies.